Research is planned and reviewed on an annual basis so that the funded efforts and the Consortium membership can be matched to the Army's technology needs. The scope of work is divided into the three technical areas previously mentioned. Each technical area has been assigned two leads, one from the Consortium and one from ARL. The current technical area leads are shown in the organizational chart. The research plan is developed annually by all participants, with the technical leads coordinating the submission of Army-focused collaborative project proposals from integrated teams of ARL and Consortium researchers. The Consortium Management Committee recommends a subset of these proposals for funding to the ARL Cooperative Agreement Manager (Dan Beekman). Once approved by both the Consortium Management Committee and ARL, this annual program plan becomes the guiding document for the year's research. Cost, schedule, and technical performance are monitored throughout the year by Dan Beekman and the Consortium Manager (Steve Scalera) via the Consortium Technical Area Leads. Quarterly and annual reports are also used to communicate progress.As part of the Alliance, our Research Management Board (RMB) provides guidance, in the form of resources, requirements and vision, which helps shape the research program and identify technology transition opportunties. Members of the Robotics RMB are:• TACOM/ARDEC• CECOM / NVL• STRICOM• NATICK• AIR FORCE (WPAFB)• CIA• NAVY (ONR,NRL,NRO)• NASA• NIMA• NIST Participation and LeverageThe CTA program was structured as a Cooperative Research Agreement between ARL and the research Consortia. This avenue has proven to be very effective in encouraging collaborations between members and in leveraging the unique focus of each class of participants in accomplishing the research plan. Scientists and engineers from industrial partners, which are leaders in commercial and defense sector product development, bring their knowledge of system performance, cost, and production issues as well as associated technology bottlenecks. University researchers bring their commitment to cutting-edge research and an educational focus, which provides a constant stream of fresh thought in the form of research students. Besides their own unique research skills, ARL researchers keep the program oriented towards solving Army problems. In addition to the regular members of the ASCTA, this program also provides funding to other organizations as required to fulfill the goals of the research program. In 2001, research funding was provided to the Ohio State University. Laboratories and TestbedsThe ASCTA used many member facilities in conducting research under the 2001 program. Many of these facilities are world class and one of a kind. Some of the more prominent examples of the facilities leveraged by this program are:• The Micro-Electronics Center at BAE SYSTEMS, contains design and fabrication facilities for electro-optical, microwave, and millimeter-wave devices; including molecular-beam-epitaxial growth of "designer" materials. It is being leveraged by this program for the development of infrared focal planes and millimeter-wave devices based on GaAs and InP and GaN material systems.• Northrop Grumman's Advanced Technology Facility includes two areas of class 100/10 clean rooms totaling 21,000 sq. ft. for the fabrications Si, SiC, SiGe, GaAs, GaN, and MEMS, imaging, acousto-optic, and photonic devices and subassemblies.• DRS Infrared Technologies' infrared focal plane laboratory contains extensive facilities for the development and characterization of infrared focal plane arrays based on the HgCdTe material system used in current state-of-the-art infrared imaging systems. This laboratory is being used by the ASCTA for the development of large format infrared focal planes.• The Center for High Technology Materials at the University of New Mexico houses a 2500 ft2 class-100 clean-room, classrooms, and 22 laboratories suitable for activities such as crystal growth, optics experiments, and micro-electronics research. It is being used by the program for the development of low-power lasers for high-speed cryogenic data links, high-power eye-safe semiconductor lasers for active imaging, and material studies to support infrared detector development.• University of Michigan will process MEMS in the 10,000 sq. ft Solid State Electronics Laboratory (SSEL) clean room facility.CollaborationA cornerstone of the CTA program is the concept that researchers sharing ideas and research findings while working in a common environment will accelerate the development of new technology and provide a rapid transition path into applications. Today's complex technology challenges have made it absolutely necessary to engage researchers on these multidisciplinary teams where new ideas can be successfully applied to complex Army problems. This is the Army's way of establishing a new research culture—transforming the old way of doing business—that fosters a different kind of relationship among research colleagues in industry, academia and Army laboratories and centers. As in integral part of the program, the CTAs utilize several venues through which such synergistic collaborations can be pursued and encouraged. Some of the venues utilized by the CTA program are summarized below: Joint Research Projects – The individual researchers collaborating on a particular research topic are involved in the planning at the task level as well as in the execution of the overall research project. On many projects the researchers come from each of the three sectors—academia, Government and private industry – bring the advantages of a multidisciplinary approach to the research problem. Staff Rotations – The best example of collaboration is staff rotation, in which individuals temporarily relocate, if necessary, to work on a daily basis with the research group at a partner's organization. Such rotations may last months or years. The rotations produce mutual understanding of technical approaches and issues. The sharing of expertise among the participants foster new insights into difficult research problems and creates opportunities for advances not previously recognized before the exchange of personnel. In some cases the rotation is combined with a long-term training educational component. This provides educational opportunities for graduate students from academia and staff S&Es from the Government and industry to earn advanced degrees and to perform cutting-edge research. The result is both individual and institutional associations that endure and grow to far exceed the separate capabilities. Workshops – Each technical area organizes focused workshops to discuss technical progress and challenges unique to that topic. This provides a forum for effective interaction between researchers from ARL, the participating consortium members, and Army RDECs. Distinguished Lecture Series – A monthly seminar is presented by an expert from one of the consortium partners or ARL to more broadly communicate the technical issues and progress on specific projects. Members of all CTA alliances are invited to attend either in person or via video teleconference. Seminars and Short Courses – More informal seminars and short courses are conducted frequently and primarily involve members of a particular CTA or technical area. Certain seminars are specifically designed to address technical areas which include several CTAs and serve as starting points for cross-CTA collaborations. Short courses are developed for particular projects that cross multiple disciplines. In these cases, it is of particular benefit for researchers to gain more in-depth knowledge of all technical areas within the project, and an expert presents several days of technical material specifically designed for the purpose. Annual Symposium – The CTA program holds a symposium each spring to present the results of its research and describe plans for the next year. Program overviews, technical papers and posters, and exhibits and demonstrations serve to communicate the research products of the CTA program to Army organizations and other Defense Department agencies. The symposium fosters interactions and collaborations among researchers from all the technical areas and all the alliances. Research Areas The future objective force will be enabled by the FCS-based Battle Team consisting of robotic direct and BLOS fire platforms, Sensor/C4 platforms, infantry squad carriers, manned C2 vehicles, MIUGS, and UAV/MAVs. Using this operational vision, we have developed our approach to the three focus areas in the Advanced Sensors program: MicroSensors, EO Smart Sensors, and Advanced RF Concepts. Advanced basic research and technology developments by our team will lead to systems solutions and help the Army achieve this vision robustly and affordably. Microsensors – easily deployed and versatile. Multi-modal microsensors will provide future warfighters with overmatching situation awareness increasing their effectiveness and their survivability. Our Microsensor component and algorithm research will enable lighter, lower power, and highly effective microsensor components and algorithms for application to soldier-worn, vehicle-mounted, and unattended sensors.EO Smart Sensors – the eyes of the future force. Smart EO sensors provide the future warfighter with even greater capability to own the night. Our focused research into higher temperature focal plane arrays, 3D imaging LADAR, and image fusion and ATR processing will extend the spectral dominance, lower the cost, and increase the information collection capabilities of these sensors.Advanced RF Concepts – multi-function and compact. Our research in new concepts for affordable ESAs will enable FCS platforms to acquire, target, counter, and communicate all through the same small set of distributed apertures. Materials and advanced heterogeneous process technology development will enable a whole new class of power efficient microcircuits with significant dual-use impact for military systems and commercial products.The following sections describe the vision and goals associated with each of these areas, as well as a synopsis of the approach taken in 2001 to meet the research goals. Incorporated into the discussion of each research area are selected 2001 research highlights or accomplishments that we think are important steps toward fulfilling the sensor technology needs of the Objective Force. Microsensors IntroductionThe objective force of the future is expected to be lighter and more agile while being more survivable and lethal. One way for the objective force to be more survivable and lethal to have superior situation awareness so that they detect and identify threats before threats can detect the force. This information superiority will allow commanders at the brigade and below level to either engage and destroy the enemy before being detected more lethal) or to avoid the threat altogether (more survivable). The objective force will, in a sense, be trading armor for information.
Figure 6. The innovative combination of target detection, ID, and fire control functions into one system will revolutionize EO systems. This vision will lead to cost, weight, and power reductions for future systems such as FCS
Our technology development program is summarized in the EO Smart Sensors roadmap. Our proposed work leverages our prior work in Fed Labs and goes far beyond adding further innovations including: higher temperature Focal Plane Array (FPAs); an active/passive 3D imaging FPA for fire control; extending the eye-safe Laser wavelength from 1.5 to 4 micron; multi-band active/passive ATR; and new Acousto-Optical Tunable Filters (AOTF) crystals for hyper-spectral imaging. We will also investigate promising new technologies including "quantum dots" for IR FPAs, low-threshold lasers, and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs).
2001 Research HighlightsMaterials Development for HgCdTe HOT Detectors. Demonstrated p-type doped (arsenic) MBE HgCdTe with dopant concentrations in the low-1017 and mid-1016 cm-3. Defined the parameters for theoretical modeling of p-type dopant incorporation, and its activation in HgCdTeExtending the Operating Wavelength of LADAR Sources. Growth and fabrication of broad area lasers using quantum dashes on InP was performed. Room temperature threshold current density of was observed. Operating wavelength of broad area quantum dash lasers on InP were extended to 1.693 m but with high 1.4 kA/cm2 wavelengths. Research will now focus on Sb-based materials.Materials Development for Staggered Lineup Detectors.. The University of New Mexico delivered staggered lineup GaInSb/InAs superlattice detector material to BAE SYSTEMS for detector fabrication. Advanced RF Concepts IntroductionLow cost multifunction RF systems are required to provide the future objective force requirements for long range all-weather multi-function operation to support radar, communications, Identification of Friend or Foe (IFF), and Electronic Warfare/Signal Intelligence (EW/SIGINT) functions. Our vision for this advanced capability is depicted in
2001 Research HighlightsVITL ESA. Scaled versions of several key elements needed for a solid state scanning VITL ESA were demonstrated at a 1 GHz including the folded meander line delay line element. The meander line phase delay was changed by either varying the spacing of the low impedance sections or by changing the capacitance of the low impedance section with varactors. A small phased array antenna was implemented and steered by changing spacing of the meanderline to groundTTL Phase Shifters. Evaluated various ESA architectures (ARL, BAE SYSTEMS, and Northrop Grumman) to determine optimal design for MEMS circuits. Designed an E-scan antenna at 35 GHz with MEMS analog phase shifters suitable for 10 scanning at 24 GHz and 35 GHz.Novel Limited Scan Phased Array. Developed a novel beam scanning phase array that makes use of a relatively small number RF switches and delay lines. A microstrip design of the two-fold phased array concept was developed using a resonant feed technique. Fabricated and measured a scaled-down prototype at X band.Bistatic Radar. Identified a number of bistatic configurations for radar measurements that relate to potential battlefield applications of bistatic MMW radar systems. Numerical simulations of the bistatic radar return from a rocket-shaped object were performed to identify the best bistatic configurations for detection of low flying missile looking objects.Multifunction RF Waveforms. Completed investigation of current MFRF & FCS system concepts and waveforms. MFRF baseline waveforms were selected for study due to undefined FCS sensor waveforms. Technology TransitionThe CTA program's value to the warfighter is significantly enhanced when we exploit the full potential of the enabling technologies that result from the basic research projects. Our technology transition approach relies on collaboration and partnering of ARL, RDECs and RMB members. This team works with the technology user community to seek out transition opportunities and to demonstrate technologies mature enough for application. This approach extends our activities beyond research papers to matching technology with customers early and then jointly mapping the transition path with them The identification of user champions through early and frequent collaborations and partnerships is a key component of our process for effective transition with defined entrance and exit criteria. Examples of this year's technology transition activities are given below:Table 1. Technology Transition Task Orders for 2001.Consortium Member Sponsor Task OrderBAE SYSTEMS Network Sensors for the Objective Force ATD, CECOM, Development of a Low Power Modular Acoustic and Imaging SensorQuantum Magnetics ARL Long-baseline Magnetic Gradiometer InvestigationPyramid Technologies, BAE SYSTEMS ARL Field Programmable Gate Array Signal Processor for a Ladar Test BedBAE SYSTEMS ARL Ka-band Metamorphic HEMT MMIC Development
For further information, contact:Dr. Dan Beekman, CAM, Advanced Sensors CTA(301) 394 - email@example.comStephen Scalera, Program Manager, Advanced Sensors CTA(603) firstname.lastname@example.org