sábado, 20 de marzo de 2010

2001 Annual Report of theAdvanced Sensors Collaborative Technology Alliance*

2001 Annual Report of theAdvanced Sensors Collaborative Technology Alliance*

IntroductionThe Army's Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA) program was formed in 2001 to establish partnerships among research communities in the Army Laboratories and Centers, private industry and academia. Each alliance member brings with it a distinctly different approach to research: Academia is known for its cutting-edge innovation; the Army Research Laboratory's researchers keep the program oriented towards solving complex Army technology problems; the industrial partners are able to leverage existing research results and to deal with technology bottlenecks. The CTA concept is designed to capitalize on the innovative academic research ideas coming from the university partners. These ideas are then augmented by the strong applied research capabilities of the commercial sector and the focused research products of the Army Research Laboratory. The three sectors collaborating together on one team provide the means for innovation and rapid technology transition. These multidisciplinary research teams are required to generate the complex technology needed to solve the Army's complex problems. This approach enables the CTA program to bring together world class research and development talent and focus it on Army-specific technology objectives for application to Army Transformation.Under the CTA program, Cooperative Agreements were awarded to five consortia in the following technical areas: Advanced Sensors, Communications and Networks, Power and Energy, Advanced Decision Architectures, and Robotics. From the cooperative program formulation process through the truly collaborative research efforts, the CTA program is efficiently focusing the expertise of industry, academia and the Army Research Laboratory on enabling technologies and new military capabilities needed for Army Transformation.The Alliances in the CTA program include not only the five consortia and ARL but also Army Research, Development and Engineering Centers (RDECs), other Army and other Government agencies (OGAs). The Army RDECs and OGAs are invited to actively participate in the research program and to conduct research jointly with Alliance members. The annual research program plan is also cooperatively formulated by Alliance members and ARL with input from the RDECs and OGAs through participation on the Research Management Boards (RMBs) established for each Alliance. The RMB partners are critical to identifying opportunities for transitioning CTA research results into their on going R&D programs. This transition is facilitated by a task order contract build into the CTA agreements. Several Army RDECs and OGAs have taken advantage of this contract mechanism in 2001 to apply CTA research results to their technology development programs.The Advanced Sensors Collaborative Technology Alliance (ASCTA) is a consortium of university and industrial laboratories that have come together to work with the Army Research Laboratory to drive technology towards the Army's vision for transformation into the future objective force. Our Advanced Sensors CTA program is focused on enabling "strategic dominance across the entire spectrum of operations" through technologies that provide: (1) unprecedented battlefield situational awareness and understanding; (2) accurate, all-weather, long-range identification and targeting for beyond line of sight engagement; and (3) a multi¬function RF capability for active RF sensing, countermeasures, and high-bandwidth secure point-to-point communications.The work is divided into three main technical areas:• Microsensors (MS)• EO Smart Sensors (EO)• Advanced RF Concepts (RF)

Figure 1. Advanced Sensors CTA technology research will enable the future objective force to "See First, Shoot First, Kill First."

Figure 2. The Advanced Sensors CTA, Drawing on the Best of the Best Throughout the CountryThe ASCTA is composed of members selected for their recognized leadership in the technical areas established for this consortium. Industry partners include BAE SYSTEMS, Northrop Grumman, DRS Infrared Technologies, Quantum Magnetics and General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS). The lead organization, BAE SYSTEMS Information and Electronics Warfare Systems, brings a wide range of experience with tactical sensor design, integration, and production; as well as the management of complex research and development programs. Northrop Grumman is a leader in defense electronics, systems integration and information technology with particular strengths in radar and EO technology. DRS Infrared Technologies has a strong background in infrared focal plane array technology. Quantum Magnetics is leading developer and manufacturer of research instrumentation for magnetic sensing. GDRS, as leader of the Robotic CTA, provides connectivity to that important Alliance. JPL a major national laboratory brings a wide range of experience in autonomous systems. Nine university partners provide research depth in a variety of fields. The University of Michigan builds on a strong history of developments in solid state electronics and radar phenomenology. The University of Maryland focuses on research in automatic target recognition and image processing. The University of New Mexico supports research in high technology electro-optic materials and devices. Clark Atlanta University provides expertise in automated target recognition and data compression. MIT's strengths within this program include signal processing. University of Mississippi contributes acoustic expertise. University of Illinois at Chicago is a leader in epitaxial growth of IR materials. The University of Florida has experience in radar signal processing and systems analysis. The Georgia Institute of Technology provides automatic target recognition, and signal processing expertise. OrganizationThe ASCTA is composed of both industrial and academic members in order to leverage the unique strengths of each: industrial focus on technology bottlenecks and an orientation towards technology transition; academic focus on fundamental technology and education. BAE SYSTEMS, is the lead organization with four other industrial, one FFRDC and nine academic partners. Each partner has a seat on the Consortium Management Committee that jointly develops an annual research program plan. The current members of the Consortium Management Committee are provided in the following organizational chart.

Figure 3. Organizational chart.
Research is planned and reviewed on an annual basis so that the funded efforts and the Consortium membership can be matched to the Army's technology needs. The scope of work is divided into the three technical areas previously mentioned. Each technical area has been assigned two leads, one from the Consortium and one from ARL. The current technical area leads are shown in the organizational chart. The research plan is developed annually by all participants, with the technical leads coordinating the submission of Army-focused collaborative project proposals from integrated teams of ARL and Consortium researchers. The Consortium Management Committee recommends a subset of these proposals for funding to the ARL Cooperative Agreement Manager (Dan Beekman). Once approved by both the Consortium Management Committee and ARL, this annual program plan becomes the guiding document for the year's research. Cost, schedule, and technical performance are monitored throughout the year by Dan Beekman and the Consortium Manager (Steve Scalera) via the Consortium Technical Area Leads. Quarterly and annual reports are also used to communicate progress.As part of the Alliance, our Research Management Board (RMB) provides guidance, in the form of resources, requirements and vision, which helps shape the research program and identify technology transition opportunties. Members of the Robotics RMB are:• TACOM/ARDEC• CECOM / NVL• STRICOM• NATICK• AIR FORCE (WPAFB)• CIA• NAVY (ONR,NRL,NRO)• NASA• NIMA• NIST Participation and LeverageThe CTA program was structured as a Cooperative Research Agreement between ARL and the research Consortia. This avenue has proven to be very effective in encouraging collaborations between members and in leveraging the unique focus of each class of participants in accomplishing the research plan. Scientists and engineers from industrial partners, which are leaders in commercial and defense sector product development, bring their knowledge of system performance, cost, and production issues as well as associated technology bottlenecks. University researchers bring their commitment to cutting-edge research and an educational focus, which provides a constant stream of fresh thought in the form of research students. Besides their own unique research skills, ARL researchers keep the program oriented towards solving Army problems. In addition to the regular members of the ASCTA, this program also provides funding to other organizations as required to fulfill the goals of the research program. In 2001, research funding was provided to the Ohio State University. Laboratories and TestbedsThe ASCTA used many member facilities in conducting research under the 2001 program. Many of these facilities are world class and one of a kind. Some of the more prominent examples of the facilities leveraged by this program are:• The Micro-Electronics Center at BAE SYSTEMS, contains design and fabrication facilities for electro-optical, microwave, and millimeter-wave devices; including molecular-beam-epitaxial growth of "designer" materials. It is being leveraged by this program for the development of infrared focal planes and millimeter-wave devices based on GaAs and InP and GaN material systems.• Northrop Grumman's Advanced Technology Facility includes two areas of class 100/10 clean rooms totaling 21,000 sq. ft. for the fabrications Si, SiC, SiGe, GaAs, GaN, and MEMS, imaging, acousto-optic, and photonic devices and subassemblies.• DRS Infrared Technologies' infrared focal plane laboratory contains extensive facilities for the development and characterization of infrared focal plane arrays based on the HgCdTe material system used in current state-of-the-art infrared imaging systems. This laboratory is being used by the ASCTA for the development of large format infrared focal planes.• The Center for High Technology Materials at the University of New Mexico houses a 2500 ft2 class-100 clean-room, classrooms, and 22 laboratories suitable for activities such as crystal growth, optics experiments, and micro-electronics research. It is being used by the program for the development of low-power lasers for high-speed cryogenic data links, high-power eye-safe semiconductor lasers for active imaging, and material studies to support infrared detector development.• University of Michigan will process MEMS in the 10,000 sq. ft Solid State Electronics Laboratory (SSEL) clean room facility.CollaborationA cornerstone of the CTA program is the concept that researchers sharing ideas and research findings while working in a common environment will accelerate the development of new technology and provide a rapid transition path into applications. Today's complex technology challenges have made it absolutely necessary to engage researchers on these multidisciplinary teams where new ideas can be successfully applied to complex Army problems. This is the Army's way of establishing a new research culture—transforming the old way of doing business—that fosters a different kind of relationship among research colleagues in industry, academia and Army laboratories and centers. As in integral part of the program, the CTAs utilize several venues through which such synergistic collaborations can be pursued and encouraged. Some of the venues utilized by the CTA program are summarized below: Joint Research Projects – The individual researchers collaborating on a particular research topic are involved in the planning at the task level as well as in the execution of the overall research project. On many projects the researchers come from each of the three sectors—academia, Government and private industry – bring the advantages of a multidisciplinary approach to the research problem. Staff Rotations – The best example of collaboration is staff rotation, in which individuals temporarily relocate, if necessary, to work on a daily basis with the research group at a partner's organization. Such rotations may last months or years. The rotations produce mutual understanding of technical approaches and issues. The sharing of expertise among the participants foster new insights into difficult research problems and creates opportunities for advances not previously recognized before the exchange of personnel. In some cases the rotation is combined with a long-term training educational component. This provides educational opportunities for graduate students from academia and staff S&Es from the Government and industry to earn advanced degrees and to perform cutting-edge research. The result is both individual and institutional associations that endure and grow to far exceed the separate capabilities. Workshops – Each technical area organizes focused workshops to discuss technical progress and challenges unique to that topic. This provides a forum for effective interaction between researchers from ARL, the participating consortium members, and Army RDECs. Distinguished Lecture Series – A monthly seminar is presented by an expert from one of the consortium partners or ARL to more broadly communicate the technical issues and progress on specific projects. Members of all CTA alliances are invited to attend either in person or via video teleconference. Seminars and Short Courses – More informal seminars and short courses are conducted frequently and primarily involve members of a particular CTA or technical area. Certain seminars are specifically designed to address technical areas which include several CTAs and serve as starting points for cross-CTA collaborations. Short courses are developed for particular projects that cross multiple disciplines. In these cases, it is of particular benefit for researchers to gain more in-depth knowledge of all technical areas within the project, and an expert presents several days of technical material specifically designed for the purpose. Annual Symposium – The CTA program holds a symposium each spring to present the results of its research and describe plans for the next year. Program overviews, technical papers and posters, and exhibits and demonstrations serve to communicate the research products of the CTA program to Army organizations and other Defense Department agencies. The symposium fosters interactions and collaborations among researchers from all the technical areas and all the alliances. Research Areas The future objective force will be enabled by the FCS-based Battle Team consisting of robotic direct and BLOS fire platforms, Sensor/C4 platforms, infantry squad carriers, manned C2 vehicles, MIUGS, and UAV/MAVs. Using this operational vision, we have developed our approach to the three focus areas in the Advanced Sensors program: MicroSensors, EO Smart Sensors, and Advanced RF Concepts. Advanced basic research and technology developments by our team will lead to systems solutions and help the Army achieve this vision robustly and affordably. Microsensors – easily deployed and versatile. Multi-modal microsensors will provide future warfighters with overmatching situation awareness increasing their effectiveness and their survivability. Our Microsensor component and algorithm research will enable lighter, lower power, and highly effective microsensor components and algorithms for application to soldier-worn, vehicle-mounted, and unattended sensors.EO Smart Sensors – the eyes of the future force. Smart EO sensors provide the future warfighter with even greater capability to own the night. Our focused research into higher temperature focal plane arrays, 3D imaging LADAR, and image fusion and ATR processing will extend the spectral dominance, lower the cost, and increase the information collection capabilities of these sensors.Advanced RF Concepts – multi-function and compact. Our research in new concepts for affordable ESAs will enable FCS platforms to acquire, target, counter, and communicate all through the same small set of distributed apertures. Materials and advanced heterogeneous process technology development will enable a whole new class of power efficient microcircuits with significant dual-use impact for military systems and commercial products.The following sections describe the vision and goals associated with each of these areas, as well as a synopsis of the approach taken in 2001 to meet the research goals. Incorporated into the discussion of each research area are selected 2001 research highlights or accomplishments that we think are important steps toward fulfilling the sensor technology needs of the Objective Force. Microsensors IntroductionThe objective force of the future is expected to be lighter and more agile while being more survivable and lethal. One way for the objective force to be more survivable and lethal to have superior situation awareness so that they detect and identify threats before threats can detect the force. This information superiority will allow commanders at the brigade and below level to either engage and destroy the enemy before being detected more lethal) or to avoid the threat altogether (more survivable). The objective force will, in a sense, be trading armor for information.

Figure 4. Low Cost Autonomous Networked Unattended Sensors Provide A Significant Force MultiplierNetworked micro sensors on various platforms such as mini/micro air vehicles, unattended ground sensors and unattended ground vehicles, can provide long range situational awareness to support the U.S. Army operational concept of "see first, shoot first, kill first". Through the development of advanced microsensor technology, future brigade and below commanders will have affordable and reliable organic assets for remote-responsive-real time situational awareness in support of direct and indirect fire missions, threat avoidance, barrier protection (land mine alternatives), perimeter security and much more.The development of networked micro sensor systems will require several key challenges to be addressed to assure that these systems will be tactically effective, for example;1) Low Cost Sensor fields that enable affordable brigade and below commands organic assets for situational awareness2) Low energy signal processing that enables sophisticated detection, identification and tracking functions at the sensor while enabling long operational life in very small, very light packages.3) Reduced communications bandwidth to lower the probability of detection or intercept by the enemy and to reduce power consumption, while improving system performance (lower false alarm rates, higher detection rates , better classification, tracking etc.) through correlation of information form multiple sensors.4) Timely and accurate contextual information about multiple targets(people and vehicles) rather than raw data and/or simple detection's. The fusion of multiple and diverse sensor data, features and decisions5) Automated / Aided Sensor field set up and management so that a wide are can be covered with minimum support from the warfighter.The Roadmap for this program is shown below:

Figure 5. Roadmap for the Microsensors program.Our Micro Sensors research program has adopted a notional micro sensor system to provide the context of the basic research. In this manner, results achieved under basic research may lead to a technology transition opportunity that is relevant to the U.S Army needs. The notional system concept is a hierarchical network which features three layers of sensor nodes referred to as tripwires, pointers and tracker/identifiers. First, tripwire nodes that are sparsely placed in the field employing omni-directional passive sensors such as seismic, magnetic or electro-static are used to detect and potentially classify targets of interest. Tripwires may also be used to extract specific features to be used by higher levels for fusion. This layer greatly reduces the necessary communication bandwidth and false alarms by using data/decision aggregation. Secondly, pointer sensors provide direction information to the target an employ arrays of acoustic seismic and or electrostatic sensors along with RF sensors. Directional sensors will be used for range and bearing estimation, range rate/bearing rate estimation, classification, and feature extraction. Features from tripwire sensors, such as time of detection, peak frequency, and classification are used to wake up and "cue" pointers into a manageable solution space, thus reducing processing and latency. Lastly, tracker/ID sensors user IR imagers, visible imagers and electromagnetic sensors to provide false alarm reduction, tracking and Automatic Target Recognition(ATR). Information form pointer sensors (i.e. beam/range sector) enable tracker/ID sensors to operate in a reduced search space for data and decision level fusion. At this level, interaction with other microsensor enabled platforms such as MAV's and UGV's will occur, for example to cue unmanned vehicles to a target, to aid in changing route plans or to aid in direct or indirect fire missions. It is also envisioned that long-range communications would reside on the tracker/ID node.Our approach to addressing the technical challenges within the context of the notional micro sensor system is to focus in four areas; New Sensors and Sensor Improvement, Advanced Algorithms (including multi-sensor fusion and novel approaches for detection, identification and tracking), Low Power signal processing, and Autonomous Sensor Management.2001 Research HighlightsRandom Thinned Array Processing. A Monte Carlo simulation for MATLAB has been written to generate performance curves versus the perturbation. This Monte Carlo method will be used to evaluate future proposed high-resolution beamforming algorithms developed for random thinned arrays. Initial results show that several well-known DOA estimates degrade with an error that is linearly related to the standard deviation of the location errorsRF Microsensor Design. Work has focused on initial designs to achieve range and range-rate measurement capabilities in a small-size RF microsensor. Both UWB and microwave frequencies are being investigated for RF microsensor designs. Initial design emphasis has been on UWB microsensor components.Low Power Microsensor Computing. Univ. of Maryland developed a graph-theoretic characterization and synthesis formulation for system-level multirate DSP algorithm applications. Also MIT developed a distributed processing system partitioning algorithm and optimal voltage/frequency scheduling design approach. EO Smart Sensors IntroductionTechnology requirements in military EO sensors are evolving toward distributed aperture and multifunction systems that provide increased capability while reducing weight, power, and vehicle signature. We are developing technology for an advanced multi-function EO system concept, depicted operationally in Figure 6, and described in Figure 7, that will lead to greater cost savings, greater functionality, and lower complexity for future systems such as the FCS. Our innovative combination of target detection, ID, and fire control functions into one system will revolutionize future military EO systems.

Figure 6. The innovative combination of target detection, ID, and fire control functions into one system will revolutionize EO systems. This vision will lead to cost, weight, and power reductions for future systems such as FCS

Figure 7. Research areas and organizations conducting that research.
Our technology development program is summarized in the EO Smart Sensors roadmap. Our proposed work leverages our prior work in Fed Labs and goes far beyond adding further innovations including: higher temperature Focal Plane Array (FPAs); an active/passive 3D imaging FPA for fire control; extending the eye-safe Laser wavelength from 1.5 to 4 micron; multi-band active/passive ATR; and new Acousto-Optical Tunable Filters (AOTF) crystals for hyper-spectral imaging. We will also investigate promising new technologies including "quantum dots" for IR FPAs, low-threshold lasers, and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs).

Figure 8. EO Smart Sensors roadmap.
2001 Research HighlightsMaterials Development for HgCdTe HOT Detectors. Demonstrated p-type doped (arsenic) MBE HgCdTe with dopant concentrations in the low-1017 and mid-1016 cm-3. Defined the parameters for theoretical modeling of p-type dopant incorporation, and its activation in HgCdTeExtending the Operating Wavelength of LADAR Sources. Growth and fabrication of broad area lasers using quantum dashes on InP was performed. Room temperature threshold current density of was observed. Operating wavelength of broad area quantum dash lasers on InP were extended to 1.693 m but with high 1.4 kA/cm2 wavelengths. Research will now focus on Sb-based materials.Materials Development for Staggered Lineup Detectors.. The University of New Mexico delivered staggered lineup GaInSb/InAs superlattice detector material to BAE SYSTEMS for detector fabrication. Advanced RF Concepts IntroductionLow cost multifunction RF systems are required to provide the future objective force requirements for long range all-weather multi-function operation to support radar, communications, Identification of Friend or Foe (IFF), and Electronic Warfare/Signal Intelligence (EW/SIGINT) functions. Our vision for this advanced capability is depicted in

Figure 9. These critical technology development can also provide functions such as kinetic energy round tracking for an Active Protection System (APS) The key issue in developing these systems is achieving cost reductions of at least 10X below current RF systems. Figure 9. Our Advanced RF Sensor research will provide affordable multi-function systems for FCS missionsThe program is focused on high payoff technology developments at Ka-band to address the greatest number of FCS missions and commonality with current systems such as Longbow. Ka-band provides a mix of benefits including high angular resolution with modest size apertures, acceptable all-weather RF propagation losses, and better mitigation of multipath phenomena. The technology focus encompasses critical subsystems, components and system studies. Figure 10 shows the elements of the system and the critical elements of our development.
Figure 10. RF Multifunction System Development ApproachThe technology focus is divided into the 4 basic areas:Area 1. Low Cost Electronically Steered Arrays (ESA). Efficient, compact, and affordable phased array antenna technology is the most critical element for any multifunction RF system. BAE SYSTEMS and Northrop Grumman have combined their extensive capability in this area to research and develop two novel concepts that promise an order of magnitude cost reduction over conventional approaches. Both approaches are modular and scalable to support FCS needs. Our first concept is an ESA tile array that uses Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS) RF switches fabricated on ceramic substrates that will dramatically simplify tile array integration. Our second concept is a Variable Impedance Transmission Line (VITL) antenna concept for an ESA that can be fabricated in a single low cost, multilayer substrate.Area 2. Digital Receiver and Exciter. Our approach for heterogeneous integration of diverse transceiver functions and devices will enable a new class of low cost, high performance receivers and exciters. To achieve this, we will research wafer-bonding technology to integrate diverse devices such as Metamorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor (MHEMT), CMOS, and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) HBTs and demonstrate key elements of an integrated digital receiver. Transferred substrate GaAlAs HBTs or low noise HBTs will be used along with wafer-bonding techniques for application to low cost waveform generators.Area 3. Devices and Materials. Advances in MEMS switching elements and high power RF sources are critical to the performance and cost of multifunction sensors and phased arrays. The University of Michigan and Northrop Grumman will develop MEMS circuits using bulk silicon and surface micro-machining techniques that will be directly integrated with planar radiating elements to provide reconfiguration. Additionally, Northrop Grumman and BAE SYSTEMS will advance Gallium Nitrate (GaN) HEMT technology to provide 5W/mm power density at Ka-band.Area 4. System Studies, The phenomenology of bistatic radar offers a significant benefit for battlefield RF systems, enabling separation of emitters and collectors, greatly increasing survivability. We will focus our research in this area on the understanding of bistatic signal scattering for various types of terrain over a wide range of illumination and scattering directions. The University of Michigan will build a two-antenna receiver system and develop spatial and frequency diversity techniques to counter multipath-induced fading. We will also design advanced digital waveforms that will provide parameter estimation and multifunction measurements for optimized interrogation of the battlefield.
Figure 11 provides a roadmap with added detail on each of the research areas. Figure 11. Roadmap for the Advanced RF Concepts program.
2001 Research HighlightsVITL ESA. Scaled versions of several key elements needed for a solid state scanning VITL ESA were demonstrated at a 1 GHz including the folded meander line delay line element. The meander line phase delay was changed by either varying the spacing of the low impedance sections or by changing the capacitance of the low impedance section with varactors. A small phased array antenna was implemented and steered by changing spacing of the meanderline to groundTTL Phase Shifters. Evaluated various ESA architectures (ARL, BAE SYSTEMS, and Northrop Grumman) to determine optimal design for MEMS circuits. Designed an E-scan antenna at 35 GHz with MEMS analog phase shifters suitable for 10 scanning at 24 GHz and 35 GHz.Novel Limited Scan Phased Array. Developed a novel beam scanning phase array that makes use of a relatively small number RF switches and delay lines. A microstrip design of the two-fold phased array concept was developed using a resonant feed technique. Fabricated and measured a scaled-down prototype at X band.Bistatic Radar. Identified a number of bistatic configurations for radar measurements that relate to potential battlefield applications of bistatic MMW radar systems. Numerical simulations of the bistatic radar return from a rocket-shaped object were performed to identify the best bistatic configurations for detection of low flying missile looking objects.Multifunction RF Waveforms. Completed investigation of current MFRF & FCS system concepts and waveforms. MFRF baseline waveforms were selected for study due to undefined FCS sensor waveforms. Technology TransitionThe CTA program's value to the warfighter is significantly enhanced when we exploit the full potential of the enabling technologies that result from the basic research projects. Our technology transition approach relies on collaboration and partnering of ARL, RDECs and RMB members. This team works with the technology user community to seek out transition opportunities and to demonstrate technologies mature enough for application. This approach extends our activities beyond research papers to matching technology with customers early and then jointly mapping the transition path with them The identification of user champions through early and frequent collaborations and partnerships is a key component of our process for effective transition with defined entrance and exit criteria. Examples of this year's technology transition activities are given below:Table 1. Technology Transition Task Orders for 2001.Consortium Member Sponsor Task OrderBAE SYSTEMS Network Sensors for the Objective Force ATD, CECOM, Development of a Low Power Modular Acoustic and Imaging SensorQuantum Magnetics ARL Long-baseline Magnetic Gradiometer InvestigationPyramid Technologies, BAE SYSTEMS ARL Field Programmable Gate Array Signal Processor for a Ladar Test BedBAE SYSTEMS ARL Ka-band Metamorphic HEMT MMIC Development
For further information, contact:Dr. Dan Beekman, CAM, Advanced Sensors CTA(301) 394 - 0920
dbeekman@arl.army.milorStephen Scalera, Program Manager, Advanced Sensors CTA(603) 885-2407stephen.m.scalera@baesystems.com

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